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The inguinal region revisited: the surgical point of view : An anatomical-surgical mapping and sonographic approach regarding postoperative chronic groin pain following open hernia repair

M Konschake, M Zwierzina, B Moriggl, R Függer, F Mayer, Walter Brunner, T Schmid, D C Chen & R Fortelny

abstract

PURPOSE
Inguinodynia or chronic post-herniorrhaphy pain, defined as pain lasting longer than 3 months after open inguinal hernia repair, has become the most important complication after inguinal surgery and therefore compromises the patient´s quality of life. A major reason for inguinodynia might be the lack of neuroanatomical knowledge and suboptimal "management" of the nerves during surgery.

METHODS
We present a detailed neuroanatomic mapping of the inguinal region by dissection including the most important surgical landmarks with all nerves confirmed by immunohistochemistry, ultrasound guided visualization of the iliohypogastric, ilio-inguinal, and genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve, and a practical (preoperative) algorithm for clinical management.

RESULTS
Surgically and ultrasonographically relevant structures ("landmarks") in open hernia repair are the anterior-superior iliac spine, pubic tubercle, Camper´s fascia (superficial layer of the superficial abdominal fascia), External oblique aponeurosis, Internal oblique muscle, Transversus abdominis muscle, superficial inguinal ring, external spermatic fascia, cremasteric fascia with cremaster muscle fibers, internal spermatic fascia, cremasteric vein (=external spermatic vein = "blue line"), ductus deferens, pampiniform plexus, inguinal ligament and the inferior epigastric vessels.

CONCLUSION
A detailed understanding of inguinal anatomy is an indispensable basic requirement for all surgeons to perform inguinal ultrasonography as well as open inguinal hernia repair, avoiding complications, especially postoperative inguinodynia.
   
citation Konschake M, Zwierzina M, Moriggl B, Függer R, Mayer F, Brunner W, Schmid T, Chen D C, Fortelny R. The inguinal region revisited: the surgical point of view : An anatomical-surgical mapping and sonographic approach regarding postoperative chronic groin pain following open hernia repair. Hernia 2019;.
   
type journal paper/review (English)
date of publishing 27-11-2019
journal title Hernia
ISSN electronic 1248-9204
PubMed 31776877
DOI 10.1007/s10029-019-02070-z