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Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in malnourished inpatients and associated with higher mortality: A prospective cohort study

Meret Merker, Aline Amsler, Renata Pereira, Rebekka Bolliger, Pascal Tribolet, Nina Braun, Claus Hoess, Vojtech Pavlicek, Stefan Bilz, Sarah Sigrist, Michael Brändle, Christoph Henzen, Robert Thomann, Jonas Rutishauser, Drahomir Aujesky, Nicolas Rodondi, Jaques Donzé, Zeno Stanga, Beat Mueller & Philipp Schuetz

abstract The impact of vitamin D deficiency on the recovery of patients with malnutrition remains undefined. Our aim was to study the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in a well-characterized cohort of patients with malnutrition and its association with outcomes.Within this secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, we examined the association of vitamin D deficiency and adverse clinical outcomes over a follow-up of 180 days in hospitalized patients at risk for malnutrition. We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels upon admission and defined Vitamin D deficiency when levels were <50nmol/l. The primary endpoint was 180-day mortality.The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in our cohort of 828 patients was 58.2% (n = 482). Patients with vitamin D deficiency had increased 180-day mortality rates from 23.1% to 29.9% (odds ratio 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.94, P = .03). When adjusting the analysis for demographics, comorbidities, and randomization, this association remained significant for the subgroup of patients not receiving vitamin D treatment (adjusted odds ratio 1.63, 95% CI 1.01-2.62, P = .04). There was no significantly lower risk for mortality in the subgroup of vitamin D deficient patients receiving vitamin D treatment compared to not receiving treatment (adjusted odds ratio 0.74, 95% CI 0.48-1.13, P = .15).Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in the population of malnourished inpatients and is negatively associated with long-term mortality particularly when patients are not receiving vitamin D treatment. Our findings suggest that malnourished patients might benefit from vitamin D screening and treatment in case of deficiency.
   
citation Merker M, Amsler A, Pereira R, Bolliger R, Tribolet P, Braun N, Hoess C, Pavlicek V, Bilz S, Sigrist S, Brändle M, Henzen C, Thomann R, Rutishauser J, Aujesky D, Rodondi N, Donzé J, Stanga Z, Mueller B, Schuetz P. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in malnourished inpatients and associated with higher mortality: A prospective cohort study. Medicine (Baltimore) 2019; 98:e18113.
   
type journal paper/review (English)
date of publishing 11-2019
journal title Medicine (Baltimore) (98/48)
ISSN electronic 1536-5964
pages e18113
PubMed 31770235
DOI 10.1097/MD.0000000000018113