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Extrahepatic autoimmune diseases in primary biliary cholangitis: Prevalence and significance for clinical presentation and disease outcome

Cumali Efe, Murat Torgutalp, Ida Henriksson, Fatema Alalkim, Ellina Lytvyak, Hirsh Trivedi, Fatih Eren, Janett Fischer, Maneerat Chayanupatkul, Claudia Coppo, Tugrul Purnak, Luigi Muratori, Mårten Werner, Paolo Muratori, Fredrik Rorsman, Kristina Önnerhag, Emma Nilsson, Alexandra Heurgué-Berlot, Nurhan Demir, David Semela, Murat Kiyici, Thomas D Schiano, Aldo J Montano-Loza, Thomas Berg, Ersan Ozaslan, Eric M Yoshida, Alan Bonder, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Benedetta Terziroli Beretta-Piccoli & Staffan Wahlin

abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIM
The prevalence and clinical significance of extrahepatic autoimmune diseases (EHAIDs) have not been evaluated in a large cohort of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC).

METHODS
The medical records of 1554 patients with PBC from 20 international centers were retrospectively reviewed. Development of decompensated cirrhosis (ascites, variceal bleeding, and/or hepatic encephalopathy) and hepatocellular carcinoma were considered clinical endpoints.

RESULTS
A total of 35 different EHAIDs were diagnosed in 440 (28.3%) patients with PBC. Patients with EHAIDs were more often female (92.5% vs 86.1%, P < 0.001) and seropositive for anti-mitochondrial antibodies (88% vs 84%, P = 0.05) and antinuclear antibodies and/or smooth muscle antibodies (53.8% vs 43.6%, P = 0.005). At presentation, patients with EHAIDs had significantly lower levels of alkaline phosphatase (1.76 vs 1.98 × upper limit of normal [ULN], P = 0.006), aspartate aminotransferase (1.29 vs 1.50 × ULN, P < 0.001), and total bilirubin (0.53 vs 0.58 × ULN, P = 0.002). Patients with EHAIDs and without EHAIDs had similar rates of GLOBE high-risk status (12.3% vs 16.1%, P = 0.07) and Paris II response (71.4% vs 69.4%, P = 0.59). Overall, event-free survival was not different in patients with and without EHAIDs (90.8% vs 90.7%, P = 0.53, log rank). Coexistence of each autoimmune thyroid diseases (10.6%), Sjögren disease (8.3%), systemic sclerosis (2.9%), rheumatoid arthritis (2.7%), systemic lupus erythematosus (1.7%), celiac disease (1.7%), psoriasis (1.5%), and inflammatory bowel diseases (1.3%) did not influence the outcome.

CONCLUSIONS
Our study confirms that EHAIDs are frequently diagnosed in patients with PBC. The presence of EHAIDs may influence the clinical phenotype of PBC at presentation but has no impact on PBC outcome.
   
citation Efe C, Torgutalp M, Henriksson I, Alalkim F, Lytvyak E, Trivedi H, Eren F, Fischer J, Chayanupatkul M, Coppo C, Purnak T, Muratori L, Werner M, Muratori P, Rorsman F, Önnerhag K, Nilsson E, Heurgué-Berlot A, Demir N, Semela D, Kiyici M, Schiano T D, Montano-Loza A J, Berg T, Ozaslan E, Yoshida E M, Bonder A, Marschall H U, Beretta-Piccoli B T, Wahlin S. Extrahepatic autoimmune diseases in primary biliary cholangitis: Prevalence and significance for clinical presentation and disease outcome. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020;.
   
type journal paper/review (English)
date of publishing 13-08-2020
journal title J Gastroenterol Hepatol
ISSN electronic 1440-1746
PubMed 32790935
DOI 10.1111/jgh.15214