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Do Epidural Steroid Injections Affect Outcomes and Costs in Cervical Degenerative Disease? A Retrospective MarketScan Database Analysis

Harsh Wadhwa, Kunal Varshneya, Martin N. Stienen & Anand Veeravagu

abstract

STUDY DESIGN
Retrospective cohort study.

OBJECTIVE
To investigate the effect of preoperative epidural steroid injection (ESI) on quality outcomes and costs in patients undergoing surgery for cervical degenerative disease.

METHODS
We queried the MarketScan database, a national administrative claims dataset, to identify patients who underwent cervical degenerative surgery from 2007 to 2016. Patients under 18 and patients with history of tumor or trauma were excluded. Patients were stratified by ESI use at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 or more months preoperative. Propensity score matched controls for these groups were obtained. Baseline demographics, postoperative complications, reoperations, readmissions, and costs were compared via univariate and multivariate analysis.

RESULTS
97 117 patients underwent cervical degenerative surgery, of which 29 963 (30.7%) had ESI use at any time preoperatively. Overall, 90-day complication rate was not significantly different between groups. The ESI cohorts had shorter length of stay, but higher 90-day readmission and reoperation rates. ESI use was associated with higher total payments through the 2-year follow-up period. Among patients who received preoperative ESI, male sex, history of cancer, obesity, PVD, rheumatoid arthritis, nonsmokers, cervical myelopathy, BMP use, anterior approach, 90-day complication, 90-day reoperation, and 90-day readmission were independently associated with increased 90-day total cost.

CONCLUSION
ESI can offer pain relief in some patients refractory to other conservative management techniques, but those who eventually undergo surgery have greater healthcare resource utilization. Certain characteristics can predispose patients who receive preoperative ESI to incur higher healthcare costs.
   
citation Wadhwa H, Varshneya K, Stienen M N, Veeravagu A. Do Epidural Steroid Injections Affect Outcomes and Costs in Cervical Degenerative Disease? A Retrospective MarketScan Database Analysis. Global Spine J 2021;21925682211050320.
   
type journal paper/review (English)
date of publishing 22-10-2021
journal title Global Spine J
ISSN print 2192-5682
pages 21925682211050320
PubMed 34686085
DOI 10.1177/21925682211050320