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Germline TYMS genotype is highly predictive in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal malignancies receiving capecitabine-based chemotherapy

Markus Joerger, A D R Huitema, H Boot, A Cats, V D Doodeman, P H M Smits, L Vainchtein, H Rosing, I Meijerman, M Zueger, D Meulendijks, Thomas Cerny, J H Beijnen & J H M Schellens

abstract

PURPOSE
This work was initiated to extend data on the effect of pharmacogenetics and chemotherapy pharmacokinetics (PK) on clinical outcome in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies.

METHODS
We assessed 44 gene polymorphisms in 16 genes (TYMS, MTHFR, GSTP1, GSTM1, GSTT1, DPYD, XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD, ERCC1, RECQ1, RAD54L, ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCG2 and UGT2B7) in 64 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) receiving capecitabine/oxaliplatin and 76 patients with advanced gastroesophageal cancer (GEC) receiving epirubicin/cisplatin/capecitabine, respectively. Plasma concentrations of anticancer drugs were measured for up to 24 h, and results were submitted to population PK analysis. We calculated the association between gene polymorphisms, chemotherapy exposure, tumor response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and chemotherapy-related toxicity using appropriate statistical tests.

RESULTS
Patients with a low clearance of 5FU were at increased risk of neutropenia (P < 0.05) and hand-foot syndrome (P = 0.002). DPYD T85C, T1896C and A2846T mutant variants were associated with diarrhea (P < 0.05) and HFS (P < 0.02), and IVS14+1G>A additionally with diarrhea (P < 0.001). The TYMS 2R/3G, 3C/3G or 3G/3G promoter variants were associated with worse PFS in the CRC (HR = 2.0, P < 0.01) and GEC group (HR = 5.4, P < 0.001) and worse OS in the GEC group (HR = 4.7, P < 0.001). The GSTP1 A313G mutant variant was associated with a higher PFS (HR = 0.55, P = 0.001) and OS (HR = 0.60, P = 0.002) in the CRC group.

CONCLUSIONS
Germline polymorphisms of DPYD, TYMS and GSTP1 have a significant effect on toxicity and clinical outcome in patients receiving capecitabine-based chemotherapy for advanced colorectal or gastroesophageal cancer. These data should further be validated in prospective clinical studies.
   
citation Joerger M, Huitema A D R, Boot H, Cats A, Doodeman V D, Smits P H M, Vainchtein L, Rosing H, Meijerman I, Zueger M, Meulendijks D, Cerny T, Beijnen J H, Schellens J H M. Germline TYMS genotype is highly predictive in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal malignancies receiving capecitabine-based chemotherapy. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2015; 75:763-72.
   
type journal paper/review (English)
date of publishing 13-02-2015
journal title Cancer Chemother Pharmacol (75/4)
ISSN electronic 1432-0843
pages 763-72
PubMed 25677447
DOI 10.1007/s00280-015-2698-7