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Osteoarthritic and non-osteoarthritic patients show comparable coronal knee joint line orientations in a cross-sectional study based on 3D reconstructed CT images

Silvan Hess, Lukas B Moser, Emma L Robertson, Henrik Behrend, Felix Amsler, Edna Iordache, Vincent Leclercq & Michael T Hirschmann

abstract

PURPOSE
Recently introduced total knee arthroplasty (TKA) alignment strategies aim to restore the pre-arthritic alignment of an individual patient. The native alignment of a patient can only be restored with detailed knowledge about the native and osteoarthritic alignment as well as differences between them. The first aim of this study was to assess the alignment of a large series of osteoarthritic (OA) knees and investigate whether femoral and tibial joint lines vary within patients with the same overall lower limb alignment. The secondary aim was to compare the alignment of OA patients to the previously published data of non-OA patients. This information could be useful for surgeons considering implementing one of the new alignment concepts.

MATERIAL
Coronal alignment parameters of 2692 knee OA patients were measured based on 3D reconstructed CT data using a validated planning software (Knee-PLAN, Symbios, Yverdon les Bains, Switzerland). Based on these measurements, patients' coronal alignment was phenotyped according to the functional knee phenotype concept. These phenotypes represent an alignment variation of either the overall alignment, the femoral joint line orientation or the tibial joint line orientation. Each phenotype is defined by a specific mean and covers a range of ± 1.5° from this mean. Mean values and distribution among the phenotypes are presented and compared between two populations (OA patients of this study and non-OA patients of a previously published study) as well as between HKA subgroups (varus, valgus and neutral) using t tests and Chi-square tests (p < 0.05).

RESULTS
Femoral and tibial joint lines varied within patients with the same overall lower limb alignment. A total of 162 functional knee phenotypes were found (119 males, 136 females and 94 mutual phenotypes). Mean values differed between the OA and non-OA population, but differences were small (< 2°) except for the overall alignment (e.g. HKA). The distribution of OA and non-OA patients among the phenotypes differed significantly, especially among the limb phenotypes.

CONCLUSION
Differences between OA and non-OA knees are small regarding coronal femoral and tibial joint line orientation. Femoral and tibial joint line orientation of osteoarthritic patients can, therefore, be used to estimate their native coronal alignment and plan an individualized knee alignment.

LEVEL OF CLINICAL EVIDENCE
III.
   
citation Hess S, Moser L B, Robertson E L, Behrend H, Amsler F, Iordache E, Leclercq V, Hirschmann M T. Osteoarthritic and non-osteoarthritic patients show comparable coronal knee joint line orientations in a cross-sectional study based on 3D reconstructed CT images. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021;.
   
type journal paper/review (English)
date of publishing 26-09-2021
journal title Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
ISSN electronic 1433-7347
PubMed 34564737
DOI 10.1007/s00167-021-06740-3