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Recent advances in the surgical treatment of malunions in hand and forearm using three-dimensional planning and patient-specific instruments

S Singh, O Andronic, P Kaiser, Lukas Jud, L Nagy & A Schweizer

abstract Malunions of the forearm and hand cause significant disability. Moreover, intraarticular deformities may contribute to early onset osteoarthritis. Such conditions require precise surgical correction in order to improve functional outcomes and prevent early or late complications. The purpose of this study was to describe the technical advantages of accurate anatomical reconstruction using 3D guided osteotomies and patient specific instruments (PSI) in multiple joints of the hand and forearm. Acquisition of three-dimensional (3D) datasets and surgical implementation of PSI was performed in a series of patients between December 2014 and July 2017. Patients had intra- or extra-articular malunions of the forearm, radiocarpal joint, trapeziometacarpal joint, or proximal interphalangeal joint. A previously described 3D surface model that incorporates CT data was used for segmentation (Mimics®, Materialise™, Belgium). For all the cases, CT scans of both forearms were acquired to use the contralateral uninjured side as the anatomic reconstruction template. Computer-assisted assessment of the deformity, the preoperative plan, and the design of PSI are described. Outcomes were determined by evaluating step-off correction, fusion, changes in range of motion (ROM) and grip strength. Six patients were included in the study; all achieved fusion. Improved clinical outcomes including pain reduction, better ROM and grip strength were obtained. Complete correction of intraarticular step-off was achieved in all cases with intraarticular malunions. 3D guided osteotomies are an established surgical treatment option for malunions of the hand and forearm. 3D analysis is a helpful diagnostic tool that provides detailed information about the underlying deformity. PSI can be developed and used for surgical correction with maximal accuracy for both intraarticular step-off and angular deformity.
   
citation Singh S, Andronic O, Kaiser P, Jud L, Nagy L, Schweizer A. Recent advances in the surgical treatment of malunions in hand and forearm using three-dimensional planning and patient-specific instruments. Hand Surg Rehabil 2020; 39:352-362.
   
type journal paper/review (English)
date of publishing 13-06-2020
journal title Hand Surg Rehabil (39/5)
ISSN electronic 2468-1210
pages 352-362
PubMed 32544631
DOI 10.1016/j.hansur.2020.04.012