Dietary risks today constitute the largest proportion of
disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) globally and in Sweden. An
increasing number of people today consume highly processed foods
high in saturated fat, refined sugar and salt and low in dietary
fiber, vitamins and minerals. It is important that dietary trends
over time are monitored to predict changes in disease risk.
In total, 15,995 individuals with two visits 10 (±1) years
apart in the population-based Västerbotten Intervention
Programme 1996-2014 were included. Dietary intake was captured with
a 64-item food frequency questionnaire. Percent changes in intake of
dietary components, Healthy Diet Score and Dietary Inflammatory
Index were calculated and related to body mass index (BMI), serum
cholesterol and triglyceride levels and blood pressure at the second
visit in multivariable regression analyses.
For both sexes, on group level, proportion of energy intake (E%)
from carbohydrates and sucrose decreased (largest carbohydrate
decrease among 40 year-olds) and E% protein and total fat as
well as saturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased
(highest protein increase among 30 year-olds and highest fat
increase among 60 year-olds) over the 10-year period. Also, E%
trans-fatty acids decreased. On individual basis, for both sexes
decreases in intake of cholesterol and trans-fatty acids were
associated with lower BMI and serum cholesterol at second visit (all
P < 0.05). For men, increases in intake of whole
grain and Healthy Diet Score were associated with lower BMI and
serum cholesterol at second visit (all P < 0.05).
Also for men, decreases in intake of trans-fatty acids and increases
in Healthy Diet Score were associated with lower systolic blood
pressure at second visit (P = 0.002 and
P < 0.000). For women, increases in intake of PUFA
and Healthy Diet Score were associated with lower BMI at second
visit (P = 0.01 and P < 0.05).
Surprisingly, increases in intake of sucrose among women were
associated with lower BMI at second visit
(P = 0.02).
In this large population-based sample, dietary changes over
10 years towards less carbohydrates and more protein and fat
were noted. Individual changes towards the Nordic dietary
recommendations were associated with healthier cardio-metabolic risk
factor profile at second visit.
Winkvist A, Klingberg S, Nilsson L M, Wennberg M, Renström F,
Hallmans G, Boman K, Johansson I. Longitudinal 10-year changes in
dietary intake and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors
in the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. Nutr J 2017; 16:20.